The word ‘text’ comes from the Latin term texere, meaning to weave’. Many critics regard text as a linguistic structure woven out of words or signs. Therefore a text is a human product whose form is achieved by its author’s design and its meanings by the author’s intentional uses of the verbal medium. Therefore, a text contains meaning which is open to interpretation. 


  1. Narrative Text:Based on perception in time. It narrates succession of events in chronological order. For instance, fairy stories, mysteries, science fiction, romances, horror stories, adventure stories, fables, myths and legends, historical narratives, ballads, slice of life, personal experience are this type.
  1. Descriptive Text:Based on perception in space. It creates a vivid picture of place, characters, events and things which are often to be found in narratives such as novels and short stories.
  1. Expository Text: It aims at explanation, i.e. the cognitive analysis and subsequent syntheses of complex facts. Example: Essay.
  1. Argumentative Text: Its aim is to change the readers’ beliefs. They often contain negative qualities or characteristics of something/someone, or try to persuade their readers that an object, product, idea is in some way better than others.
  1. Informative Text: Itis nonfiction writing, written with the intention of informing the reader about a specific topic. It is typically found in magazines, science or history books, autobiographies and instruction manuals
  1. Persuasive Text: It is any text where the main purpose is to present a point of view and seeks to persuade a reader. A persuasive text can be an argument, exposition, discussion, review or even an advertisement.


What is an author’s purpose? It is the reason an author decides to write about a specific topic.  Then, once a topic is selected, the author must decide whether his purpose for writing is to inform, persuade, or entertain the reader.

When an author knows his purpose in writing, he will have a clear view of how he will present his ideas to help his readers. He will be guided on how to develop his writing and be able to achieve writing an article truly for its purpose. There are three basic purposes in writing a text, they are shortcut as PIE and they are:

  1. To Persuade (P)

In a text that is written to persuade, the author’s primary purpose is to compel readers to take action, convince them of an idea through argument, or to reaffirm their existing beliefs.


The school fair is right around the corner, and tickets have just gone on sale. We are selling a limited number of tickets at a discount, so move fast and get yours while they are still available. This is going to be an event you will not want to miss! Spend time with your family and friends at our school fair. Buy your tickets now!

  1. To Inform (I)

The primary purpose of texts that are written to inform is to enlighten the reader or provide the reader with information about a topic.


Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection causing a severe flu-like illness and, sometimes causing a potentially lethal complication called severe dengue. The incidence of dengue has increased 30-fold over the last 50 years. Up to 50-100 million infections are now estimated to occur annually in over 100 endemic countries, putting almost half of the world’s population at risk.

Does the text provide facts and information?

  1. To Entertain (E)

The primary purpose of texts that are written to entertain is to amuse readers. This does not mean that the text must be happy; the text could be a tragedy, but the main reason for writing the text is to entertain readers.


I was walking in the middle of the ground when I saw you with your new girl. You were holding her hands the way you used to hold mine. I should have never let you go. All that is left in me right now is regret.

It is not difficult to identify the author’s purpose in writing the text. The following checklist will help you to do so.

Which subject is your favorite?
Which social platform you used more often?
Your highest grade during school days?
Best memories during school days?